Romans Were Known For Their Aquaducks:
The Hebrew God Was As Old As Moses
Mesopotamia was begun by the Sumeritans. It is a small land area which today is found in Egypt off the Nile River. The Mesopotamians were comprised of Summarians and Babylonians. The Summarians lived between the Euphrates and the Tiger Rivers which flooded irregularly. They also had the River Nile which controlled their civilization.
( Earlier on, the Egyptians controlled the Nile, but rivers, like civilizations, wandered in those days.)
In Mesopotamia there were city-states between the Tiger and Euphrates River in 3000 B.C. Also there were articles written by using characters cut from stone and the building of Zuggrats, large stone buildings. One of the major contributions from the Mesopotamians was recording information on soft clay tablets in the shapes of livers and other parts of the body by reed-shaped styles. This was called cunative or cunniform writing. Soon, however, the Mesopotamians stopped using the pictogram and instead used cuneiform as their way of communication, which was like chicken scratches.
The Summarrians had many gods or dieties. Like most ancient civilizations, they were also polytheists (worshipping more than one god to cover themselves). One god was Ahura Mazda—the god of sun and light. Another was Ahurmia—the god of evil and darkness. A third was Nammu—the female creator of the universe. The religious concepts of the Summarians spilled over into western civilization. They and the Babylonians knew arithmetic and geometry and had sum understanding of algebra. The Mesopotamian culture used their mathematics, based on the number 60, to build architectural structures like the Temple of Karnak.
( The Temple of Karnak was built by the Mesopotamians but was sold and moved to Egypt to entomb the appropriate pharaoh.)
The Egyptians came up with a new form of writing called hyrogliphix or hygrogriphics, later refined as hyroglifics. They contributed threw their great engineering feets. They designed the pyramids for their pharaoh's afterlife and built the Shinx, one type of pyramid, which was carved out of rock. (The pyramids are a range of mountains between France and Spain.) The Egyptians also had a well-organized math system (pie r2) and devised a solar calendar based on the cycles of the moon which was more effective than the lunar calendar.
( Little is known about hygrogriphics, but being a coastal civilization, the Egyptians undoubtedly used water-soluble ink in writing their hieroglyphics during this early era.)
The pyramids are mountains between France and Spain
They were also into medical advances such as mummification and practiced embalming. When their pharaohs were embombed, they removed the blood and certain vital organs, filled them with special fluid, and rapped them. The storage containers they used to keep the body in were similar to today's caskets.
( The implications of the Egyptian belief in reincarnation did have "explosive" results on their culture.)
The body was placed in a tomb deep within the pyramid. Other rooms were filled with the everyday pleasures of life because it was believed that the spirit or Ka could come out of the body and wander the tomb. The pharaoh would use the games and instruments to entertain himself so he wouldn't be bored to death.
Socially, the Egyptians saw many changes. They excelled socially and were leaps and bounds beyond their counterparts. They gave us the hierercatical law code of Hammurabi, a Code of Ethics which stated simply, "An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth."
They also learned a great deal from the Hebrews and thus allowed their women to have a lot of freedom. There were major domos and chief concubines who were to entertain the dieties in dancing. It is evident that women were also priestesses, held administrative positions, and were the epidemi of lovelyness to their men. In royalty, women took part in the royal business. The Egyptians made them goddesses in major dieties such as Hathor and Thorth. Egyptian women had it good; they were everything.
Religion was a major influence in Egyptian culture. The Zirrugat, or stepped mound that surmounted the temple, was invented. Amenhotep IV said that everyone should worship the one god Anton. He was thinking correctly about their being only one god, but he got the wrong one. Egypt—what a place!
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The Hebrews were common people. They were for the most part not high in the political seen. They became slaves to Egypt. But Moses led the Israelites from Jerusalem to Canaan between 1300 and 1200 B.C. When the Hebrews had escaped slavery in Egypt and were wandering in the desert and got thirsty and hungry, Jehovah provided them with water rather than soda pop.
( As professional complainers, the Hebrews at that stage would probably have set up a hue and cry for soda pop had they been aware of it.)
The Jews were unique in their Christianity. They were monotheistic while the other cultures around them were saturated with gods which were only different from humans in their power and in their immorality. The Hebrew God was as old as Moses. The Hebrew profits, who interpeded the Lord and his communications to the people, warned them that if they worshipped idols, Jahweh would be sure to punish them. They predicted that the Hebrews would allow the Jews to reestablish the temple in Jerusalem. These profits preached whatever they wanted to say, even if it displeased the authorities.
The Hebrew God, Yahwey, was not a diety who demanded ritual sacrifices without cause or meaning. The Jews had a very structed religion pointing towards a future event. The Bible was written to show the Israeli concept of spiritualism. The laws of the Hebrews were based mainly on moral behavior such as stealing, killing, and committing adultery.
They made a pact with God, a covenant that stated if they obeyed Him, He would care for and protect them. The other nations had no such insurance plan.
Women could be priestesses if they had been called by God. Their Pharisees were people who liked to show off their goodness by praying in synonyms.
The Hebrews became very warlike, an empirical people who had to change as empires grew. However, their God provided for the Hebrew poor. The nations around didn't. The southern kingdom of Judah was destroyed and taken hostage off to Babylon. Finally they returned to their homeland, and after 25 years, the State of Israel was established in 1948.
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The Persians of Arabia were in the light from about 459 to 333 B.C. Arabia has many syphoons and very bad ones; it got into their hair even with their mouths shut. Persia was divided into 20 providences. The Persians were notorious for their excleptic nature. They were of a more calm, almost sensual nature. Persian governors would keep pease with the native people and collect taxes.
( This pastoral image of Persian governors dining on vegetables with their people before dunning them for taxes is an especially touching one.)
The Medo-Persians constructed the Suez Canal and created a good postal system. They also created the compass and gave us the I.R.S. Since they were Republicans, they created the federation, a unification of states under one in the eclecticism era, because they were mainly eclectic in their ways of being by themselves and all.
Around 250 A.D. the Persian Sassidans crossed into the Roman Empire by the Danube. Persia was to figure prominently in all of ancient history, eventually developing the Persian rug. They sponged up the culture and talents of a captive people into their own culture. They brought dance, were great partiers, and had lots of eating.
The Persians were also one of the first civilizations that began worshipping the myth gods. Their god Ahura Masdan was the god of good and Ahramada was the god of bad or evil. They also gave us the Ahura and the Zodiac, which is the zoo of the sky, where lions, goats and other animals go after they're dead.
( This idea of celestial immortality for pets pleased Persian children and should bring comfort to today's boys and girls who, reciting "Twinkle, twinkle, little star," need no longer "wonder what you are!")
The Assyrians were a group to be afraid of; they were not like people, but came from a war-torn country. They were a warring tribe, extremely violent and forceful, who bothered everyone in the surrounding cities. They terrorized their opponents in war and often fought dirty.
( The Assyrians did bathe occasionally, however, but not as often as the Romans.)
Their military machine inspired terror in the hearts of their subjects. They were brutal in seiging cities with gorilla warfare and slicing up people. They were cruel to their captors. Sacrificial babies and other dimented rituals dominated their lives. They were allowed to beat their wives under Solon's law.
The Assyrians developed the use of iron and the calvary to be used in war. This calvary was a deadly force. The Assyrians were the first ones to start a long-term army and the first to start and have a calvary. They literally steam rolled into Babylonia, Palestine, Persia, and Egypt.
Assyrian art was often gruesome, but it did show that they had some soft spot to them. They established a library at Nazareth. Their art forms and winged creatures led to Christianity's angles. Their postal system was excellent—somewhat better than ours today.
The Chaldeans had all the seven wonders of the world. King Nebuchadnezzar of the Chaldeans built the hanging gardens for his wife who missed the mountains. That structure was hailed as one of the seven wonders of the world. At a height of 75 feet and a width of 400 square feet, it appeared to hang in midair from a distance.
The Hittites gave us a representative government. The Phoenicians used the cunei form of writing. The gods of the Indians were chiefly Mahommad and Buddha. In their spare time they did lots of carving.
( Here is another charming case of Sumerian cuneiform wandering northwards to Phoenicia. Explaining this cultural transference will doubtless provide fodder for future dissertations.)
( Normally they carved in wood or ivory, but occasionally they carved up each other until the Crusaders arrived.)
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Sad to say, these ancients disappeared, either through mixing with other cultures or dying off. But their legacy lives on. The civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Phoenicia, Assyria and Persia are what we know today as the "fertile crest." It is evident, therefore, that each of these kingdoms did give their own unique contributions and they are unique because they were so very different from one another. All of these achievements started the ball of society rolling towards a better way of life.
( This profound insight would impress Aristotle centuries later—or was it earlier?)
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